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Consequently, Henry VIII and his successors endeavored to force the Irish to submit through military incursions and by "planting" large areas of Ireland with settlers loyal to England.
A forceful resistance to the English reconquest of Ireland was led by the Northern chieftain Hugh O'Neill at the end of the sixteenth century.
The area of the Republic of Ireland is 27,137 square miles, that of Northern Ireland is 5,458 square miles.
Thus began a great religious and cultural period for the country.
While the rest of Europe was swiftly declining into the Dark Ages, Irish monasteries—preserving the Greek and Latin of the ancient world—not only became great centers of learning, but also sent many famous missionaries to the Continent.
The entire island, with a total area of 32,595 square miles, is a little larger than the state of Maine.
The population of the Republic of Ireland in 1991 was approximately 3,523,401, that of Northern Ireland 1,569,971.
Following O'Neill's defeat in 1603 and his subsequent flight to the Continent, the Crown commenced the large-scale plantation of Ulster with English; Scottish Presbyterians soon followed.